Reference : Vishnu Puranam Page : 327 onwards. 4th Amsa 23rd and 24th Adhyayas
Note : The future tense is used and the narrator is Parasara, the father of Veda Vyasa and the grand son of Vasishtha. I believe that it was a style to use future tense whenever updates were made to the Purana and retain the voice of the original narrator. One consequence of this is that “traditionalists” believe that the future was foretold and the “non-believers” reject the entire section out-right. Another consequence is that western (and western influenced) authors date the entire puranam as the date of the last update. This is clearly wrong because Kautilya’s Artha Sastra, clearly refers to the people, authors, views and incidents of the puranas as well as to the Itihasas by name. (See : Vyasa, Bharadwaja and Ravana lived before Chanakya (Kautilya)).
Let us now look at the contents of the Selected Adhyayas and learn what we can.
Sri Parasara said :
- Jarasandha was the first of the Barhadrathas. (Dwapara Yuga) (His father was Brhadratha)
- His son was Sahadeva (He was defeated by Arjuna after the war.)
- Srutasrava, Ayutayu, Niramitra, Sunetra, Brhatkarma, Senajita, Srutanjaya, Viprah, Sucinama, Kshemya, Suvrata, Dharma, Susrava, Drudhasena, Subala, Sunitha, Satyajit, Visvajit, Ripunjaya.
- These were kings for 1000 years. (This brings us to approx. 1000 Kaliyuga or 2100 BCE) (Wilson’s Notes : “Our list and that of the Váyu specifies twenty-one kings after Sahadeva: the Bhágavata specifies twenty, and in another passage states that to be the number. My copy of the Matsya names but nineteen, and the Radcliffe but twelve; but both agree in making the total thirty-two. They all concur with the text also in stating that 1000 years had elapsed from the great war, at the death of the last Várhadratha prince; and this is more worthy of credit than the details”)
- Ripunjaya had a minister (amatya) called Munika who killed him and installed his own son Pradyotana on the throne.
- Balaka, Visakayupa, Janaka, Nandivardhana, Nandi,
- The 5 Pradyotas ruled for 138 years. (This brings us to approx. 1138 Kaliyuga or 1962 BCE)
- Sisunabha, Kakavarna, Kshemadharna, Kshatouja, Vidhisara, Ajatasatru, Arbhaka, Udayana (of SwapnaVasavadatta fame?), Nandivardhana, Mahanandi
- These Saisanabhas ruled for 362 years. (This brings us to approx. 1500 Kaliyuga or 1600 BCE) (Saisanabhas are our Saisanagas or Sisunagas Gautama Buddha lived in the time of Bimbisara and Ajatasatru, so his date will be roughly 1962 to 1600 BCE).
- Mahapadma Nanda, though born of a Sudra mother, but was exceedingly powerful and like a second Parasurama, he eliminated Kshatriyas. He was an emperor. The kings that followed were Sudras.
- He had 8 sons, Sumali and others.
- The sons of Mahapadma Nanda ruled for 100 years. (This brings us to approx, 1600 Kaliyuga or 1500 BCE)
- Kautilya eliminated these 9 Nandas, and established the rule of the Mauryas.
- Chandragupta Maurya, Bindusara, Asokavardhana, Suyasa, Dasaratha, Samyuta, Salisuka, Somasarma, Satadhanva, Brhadratha.
- These Mauryas ruled for 137 years. (This brings us to approx, 1737 Kaliyuga or 1363 BCE)
- Then 10 Sungas ruled.
- Pushyamitra, was a commander, who killed his king and ruled the kingdom.
- Agnimitra (Malavika’s Agnimitra?) was his son.
- Sujyeshta, Vasumitra, Udanka, Pulinda, Ghoshavasu, Vajramitra, Bhagavatha, DevaBhuti
- Thus the Sungas ruked for 112 years. (This brings us to approx, 1848 Kaliyuga or 1251 BCE)
- A Kanva, by name Vasudeva, an amatya (minister) killed the lecherous king Devabhuti and took over the kingdom.
- Bhumitra, Naryana, Susharma
- The 4 Kanvas ruled for 45 years. (This brings us to approx, 1893 Kaliyuga or 1206 BCE)
- The Andhra attendant Balipucchaka, killed Susharma and took control of the kingdom.
- Then his brother Krishna ruled next.
- Santhikarni, Purnotsanga, Satakarni, Lambodara, Pilaka, Meghasvati Patuman, Arishta Karma, Halahala (Brihat Katha in Paisachika?), Palalaka, Puilindasena, Sundara, Satakarni, Sivasvati, Gomatiputra, Aliman, Santakarni, Sivisrita, Sivaskandha, Yagnyasri, Dviyagnya, Chandrasri, Puloma.
- Thus the Trimsat Andhras (30 Andhras) ruled for Catvari Abda Satani Shat Panchasat Adhikani 456 years. (Wilson’s Notes : The Váyu and Bhágavata state also 30 kings, and 456 years; the Matsya has 29 kings, and 460 years. The actual enumeration of the text gives but 24 names; that of the Bhágavata but 23; that of the Váyu but 17. The Matsya has the whole 29 names, adding several to the list of our text; and the aggregate of the reigns amounts to 435 years and 6 months.) (This brings us to approx, 2349 Kaliyuga or 750 BCE)
- Then ruled seven Ábhíras, ten Gardhabhinas, sixteen bhupatis, eight Yavanas, fourteen Turushkaras, thirteen Muńd́as, eleven Maunas, altogether seventy-nine princes for one thousand three hundred and ninety years. (This brings us to approx, 3739 Kaliyuga or 640 CE (AD).)
- It also implies that the Maunas were in control of Magadha at the time Alexander was attempting to cross the Sindhu.
- Eleven Pauras ruled for three hundred years. (This brings us to 4039 Kaliyuga, 940 CE.)
- Next the Kainkila Yavanas ruled.
- Vindhyas’akti, Puranjaya, Ramachandra, Dharmavarma, Vanga, Bhunandana, Sunandi, then his brother Nandiyasassukrah, Pravira.. for one hundred and six years. (This brings us to 4145 Kaliyuga, 1046 CE.)
- Then their 13 sons of whom 3 were bahlikas, Pushpamitra, Patumiyatra, trayodasaikala, seven Andhras.
- Then there were 9 Nishada kings who ruled Kosala.
- In Magadha, Viswasphatika made other Varnas (than Kshatriyas), the rulers.
- Then 9 Nagas ruled a Pura named Padmavathi.
- In Magadha, the Guptas ruled from Gaya to Ganga, Prayaga.
- Devarakshita ruled Kosala, Andhra, Pundra, Tamralipta, Samatatapuri.
- Kalinga, Mahisha, Mahendra bhouma were ruled by Guha.
- A king of the Manidhanyaka Vamsa, ruled Naishadha, Naimisha, Kakalakosha Kanchana janapadas.
- Three kingdoms, Mushika Janapadas, Kanakahvayas ruled.
- Mlechhas, Sudras and Vratyas ruled Kashmir, Chandrabhaga, Sindhutata, Davikorvi.
I think that all this describes the kings of various areas around the time of the last update of the Vishnu Purana which was coming close to the time of Qutb Ud Din Aibak. After this there were no further updates to the Vishnu Puranam.
Because the last update was close to 1000+ AD, colonial historians and those influenced by them gravitated to a very late date for the Puranas. This is incorrect because as we know, Chanakya referred to them, they must predate Chankaya wt the very least. Only this chapter may have been updated.
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