Indian History – A New Construct

A. The Genographic Project  by National Geographic

B. Questions that I need to ask.

C. The Narmada Woman

D. Age of the Earth

E. Cosmological Beginnings

F. Formation of the Solar System

G. Formation of the earth’s crust and the oceans

H. Correlating the Geological Time Scale with the Caturyugas

I. Indian History – A New Construct – 1.6 : Pangea and the drift of the Indian Plate : JambuDweepa?

A. The Genographic Project  by National Geographic : (Reference)

  • This studies genetic markers and proposes migration theories.
  • Prior to 60000 BC, their model recognises human presence only in Africa, Europe, China and South East Asia. It shows India, Australia, Arabia and the Americas as unpeopled.
  • Then it proposes migrations via Arabia, To India by land and Australia largely by by boat around 60000 BC.
  • It then shows a second migration to India, by boat closer to 50000 BC and by land all the way to Americas.
  • In their model the branch that went to Europe stayed there, but the other branches circulated back and forth across Asia. Similarly in their model, the branches that went to the Americas stayed there.

B. Questions that I need to ask.

  1. Can genetic markers suggest inter-breeding or does it have to mean migration?
  2. Can genetic markers prove the absence of other indigenous people?
  3. Is there no evidence of human existence in India prior to 60,000 BC?
  4. Is there evidence that no humans existed in India prior to 60,000 BC?
  5. Has the evidence found been ignored and  neglected?
  6. Did no one even look for evidence? Dr Sonakia, GSI has looked for evidence in Narmada Valley and found the skull of a  Narmada Woman “in a layer of volacanic ash between 75000 and 750,000 years old, closer to the 750,000 boundary.”

C. The Narmada Woman (Notes)

In 1982, a human skull was found in the Narmada Excavation in a layer of volacanic ash between 75000 and 750,000 years old, closer to the 750,000 boundary. It is either a homo erectus. Some writers have used morphometry to highlight some features of the skull and ignore other features – such that they can call it a Homo Sapiens skull. If  they are right, then we have a Homo Sapiens skull buried close to the 750,000 year old boundary in Narmada Valley, India.

References :

  1. Pictures on GSI web-site. ,
  2. Excavations in the Central Narmada Basin.,: ““The broken skull specimen of Homo erectus, first & only of its kind in India, discovered by Dr. Arun Sonakia, Ex-Director, Palaeontology Division, Geological Survey of India, Central Region, Nagpur is one of such rare collection. This skull was discovered on 5th December, 1982 in the middle of the Narmada valley in Hathnora, Madhya Pradesh. This Hathnora Skull fossil carries a double interest: It is the most ancient human remnant so far discovered in Indian subcontinent and It was discovered in situ which allow a precise determination of its stratigraphic, palaeontological and cultural context all attributable to the Middle Pleistocene (around 500,000 years ago) age in the geological time scale. The material is a part of the cranium which may be ascribed to a female individual at the age of thirty. The skull was studied by Arun Sonakia in 1982 and Marie-Antoinette de Lumley in 1984 based on morphological comparisons with similar fossils discovered in Europe and Asia. The study revealed that the Narmada Man was a Homo erectus i.e. archaic man. At that time, it was impossible to do CT scan. Now, with the help of Geological Survey of India, Prof. Henry de Lumley, Marie de Lumley, Amilie Vialet from the Institute of Human Palaeontology, Paris are working upon a project based on serial CT scan data of the skull.””
  3. An article on the Out-Of-Narmada theory proposed by Dr. Sonakia,: “Thanks to the discovery of very few fossil remains, the antiquity of humans is still an enigma. The Indian sub-continent has many relics of oldest ‘cultural evidences’ such as stone implements, but so far only one oldest hominid fossil has been discovered.  Taking a complete picture of the cultural evidences and fossils of our ancestors through the ages, some Indian palaeo-anthropologists believe that archaic human Homo erectus had his abode in the Narmada valley and from there he migrated in all directions and evolved to Homo sapiens with the passage of time. The other group, which happens to be in majority from the developed world sticks to Africa being the centre for human evolution. The story of ‘out of Africa’ stock is well publicised. ‘Out of Narmada’ is a comparatively new concept put forth by Dr Arun Sonakia ex-director of Geological Survey Of India (GSI) and an expert on hominids. His postulations are based on his own discovery of hominid skull in 1982 from Hathnaura on the bank of Narmada River near Hoshangabad in Madhya Pradesh and interpretation of data available on early human sites of the SAARC region.”
  4. Article in Current Science published in 1998.: ” Studies on lithostratigraphy, magnetostratigraphy and tephrastratigraphy reveal that Narmada Homo erectus is from a bed just above a formation of0.73 Ma and at least 19 m below a layer of 74,000 BP. Fossils belonging to Hippopotamidae, Equidae, Stegodontidae, Suidae and Canidae are mainly relied upon for biozonation of the Narmada deposits. Fossils of these families collected along with the Homo erectus skull or from the same geological horizons containing the skull point to a Middle Pleistocene (in all probability its lower horizon) age of the Narmada Homo erectus. The discovery of IndianHomo erectus bridges the gap between African H. erectus in the west and Chinese and Javan H. erectus in the east and south east respectively. There is a general consensus of opinion that Afro-Asian H. erectus ranges in age from Lower Pleistocene to Middle Pleistocene. Indian H. erectus falls within this range.”
  5. 100 fossilized dinosaur eggs found in Narmada Valley
  6. How old is the oldest human fossil found in India? 600,000 years old. The skull of a 30-year old woman in the western Narmada region of Madhya Pradesh.Dr Arun Sonakia, director, Nagpur Circle, GSIwas the one who discovered the skull along with other mammalian fossils in late 1982.  Explaining with a plaster cast of the skull, Sonakia pointed out the differences that evolution had wrought. ‘‘This skull has a gently sloping forehead with massive eyebrow ridges and a cranial capacity of 1,100cc. Prehistoric man had better visual faculties and less grey matter. The skull of modern man has a more vertical forehead and not such deep-set ridges. Other sensory faculties are more developed and the cranial capacity is 1,400-1,500cc, indicating the presence of more grey matter,’’ Sonakia remarked. Radio carbon dating could not be done on the skull because the process can’t be used on any fossil that is more than 40,000 years old. Sonakia and his team managed to date the antiquity of the skull through faunal dating – by analysing animal fossils found with the skull. These fossils are of animals that flourished between a certain period all across the world in Europe, Africa and Asia. They all belong to the Quartenary period. Fauna of this period is 18 lakh years old and younger. ‘‘We also used changes in the earth’s magnetic field to date the skull. These changes in the magnetic field take place over a long time and affect these fossils,’’ Sonakia explained. The cast of the skull along with other discoveries of GSI are on display at the India Habitat Centre as part of the GEOSAS Congress taking place in the city.”
  7. : Western Idea claims it is a Homo Sapiens, based on some morphometry in which case, we have the oldest Homo Sapiens Skull. “In 1982 a fossil hominid calvaria was found in a middle Pleistocene deposit in the central Narmada valley of Madhya Pradesh, India, and was assigned to the new taxon Homo erectus narmadensis. Subsequently, morphometric studies of the specimen were conducted by two separate research teams from France and the United States, both in collaboration with Indian colleagues. Results of the most recent study, which includes morphometric and comparative investigations, lead to the conclusion that Narmada Man is appropriately identified as Homo sapiens. While the calvaria shares some anatomical features with Asian Homo erectusspecimens, it exhibits a broader suite of morphological and mensural characteristics suggesting affinities with earlyHomo sapiens fossils from Asia, Europe, and Africa as well as demonstrating that the Narmada calvaria possesses some unique anatomical features, perhaps because the specimen reflects the incoherent classificatory condition of the genus Homo.”
  8. : The Homo Sapiens Idaltu is a 160,000 year old sub-species of Homo Sapiens whose skull was found in Herto, Middle Awash, Ethiopia. These were very, very large robust people. The link gives a picture of the skull and an artist’s drawing of the person. Their skulls were larger than our skulls. “Radioisotopically dated to between 160,000 and 154,000 years ago, these new fossils predate classic Neanderthals.”

D. Age of the Earth

  1. The current age of the earth as per Traditional Indian Astronomy, based on the alignments of our Sun, our Moon, 5 planets, their apogees, perigees etc is half a kalpa. A kalpa is 4 320 000 000 earth years long. ie 4.32 billion years long. So the earth is 2.16 billion years old. And there is another 2.16 billion years to go before pralaya.
  2. The current age of the earth as per the radiometric dating of the meteorites is 4.6 billion years, a little over a kalpa.
  3. So the traditional date as per Indian Astronomy and the geological date as per radiometric dating are of the same order of magnitude, (but numerically different). (Notes : Age of the Earth)
  4. The current age of the universe as per the big bang theory is approximately 4 kalpas.
  5. The age of the earth, according to a Christian Bishop Ussher, based on the geneology of kings in their bible is 5600 years. This is very close to the traditonal date for  beginning of the Kaliyuga (which began in 3102 BCE).From this we can ascertain that the all Biblical Religions and histories (Judaism, Christianity and Islam) are Kaliyuga religions and histories. If this bishop’s analysis is correct, then biblical religions have no memory of the periods before the Kaliyuga such as Dwapara etc.

Something from Nothing : A tiny fluctuation in a “false vacuum” for a tiny instant, consistent with quantum mechanics, inflated into the universe that we see today. This scientific model does not require the “Will of God” to explain how it all happened. This “How”  is far closer to the Indian Puranic accounts than it is to Biblical  Puranic accounts.

(Neither Science nor Puranas answer “Why?”)

E. Cosmological Beginnings


At First, there was Nothing, Not Even Time and and Not Even Space. “Don’t imagine outer space without matter in it. Imagine no space at all and no matter at all.”

Then from 10 to the power of minus 37 seconds to 10 to the power of minus 34 seconds, the Unviverse Inflated at a rate that kept doubling .

“The primordial “stuff” of inflation, is very likely a spontaneous creation, a no-strings gift that boiled out of absolutely nowhere by means of an utterly random but nonetheless scientifically possible process. The universe according to Alan Guth began in the era of quantum gravity, a time when all four forces of the universe—gravity, electromagnetism, the strong (nuclear) and weak forces — may have been unified. Energy boiling out of this unstable stew grew during the brief inflationary period at an ever-doubling rate, then decayed into an electron-quark soup as those forces began splitting apart. The soup’s fundamental particles combined into ever-more-complex forms as the universe cooled and expanded. ”

“Quantum theory also holds that a vacuum, like atoms, is subject to quantum uncertainties. This means that things can materialize out of the vacuum, although they tend to vanish back into it quickly. While this phenomenon has never been observed directly, measurements of the electron’s magnetic strength strongly imply that it is real and happening in the vacuum of space even now.”

“Theoretically, anything—a dog, a house, a planet—can pop into existence by means of this quantum quirk, which physicists call a vacuum fluctuation. Probability, however, dictates that pairs of subatomic particles—one positive, one negative, so that conservation laws are not violated—are by far the most likely creations and that they will last extremely briefly, typically for only 10-21 second. The spontaneous, persistent creation of something even as large as a molecule is profoundly unlikely.”

“The universe seems to be extremely “flat,” which means matter, velocity, and gravity all balance to put space-time precisely on the dividing line between a “closed” and an “open” geometry. In a closed universe, space-time curves back on itself, such that light beams that start out parallel will actually meet. In an open universe the beams will diverge. The value of omega describes the ratio between the average density of matter in space and what that density would need to be to make the universe perfectly flat. If omega equals one, the universe is flat.”

“”According to classic Big Bang theory, as the universe evolves, the value of omega is always driven away from one. So if the universe starts out with an omega value of less than one, omega gets rapidly smaller as the universe ages. If it starts with omega greater than one, omega gets rapidly larger. The fact that omega is very close to one today—microwave background radiation measurements indicate it is within 10 percent of one—means that, according to classic Big Bang theory, one second after the bang, omega would have had to be between .999999999999999 and 1.000000000000001″

“Guth realized that omega did not have to be preposterously fine-tuned from the start. An exponentially expanding early universe, which he would come to call the inflationary universe, would drive omega toward one, not away from it, making a flat universe inevitable.”

“Return to that primordial vacuum, a boiling stew from which pairs of positive and negative subatomic particles bubble into being for the briefest of instants. Inflationary theory suggests that what erupted was a “false vacuum,” a peculiar form of matter predicted to exist by many particle theorists.”

“A false vacuum is characterized by a repulsive gravitational field, one so strong it can explode into a universe. Another peculiarity of the false vacuum is that it does not “thin out” during expansion as, say, a gas does—the density of the energy within it remains constant even as it grows. So the false vacuum’s expansion, accelerating exponentially as its repulsive force compounded, actually created vast quantities of ever-doubling energy, which decayed into a seething plasma of particles such as electrons, positrons, and neutrinos. As the early universe went along doubling every microsecond, the stuff in it doubled, too—out of nowhere. The electrons, positrons, and neutrinos became a sort of hot soup, which 300,000 years later neutralized to form simple atoms. The simple atoms, like hydrogen, helium, and lithium, were ripped apart and crushed together to form more complex, heavier atoms inside stars. Exploded into space by supernovas, they became the matter we see—and are—today.”

“The initial bit of false vacuum required by Guth’s calculations turned out to be mind-bendingly small: A patch one-billionth the size of a proton would do. And the required period of exponential growth was very short. In perhaps just 10 to the power of minus 34 seconds, the universe expanded by 25 orders of magnitude, to roughly the size of a marble, an increase equivalent to a pea growing to the size of the Milky Way.”

“The inflationary process, would push omega toward one with incredible swiftness. The reason is best expressed by analogy. The universe appears to be virtually flat for the same reason that Earth’s surface appears to be virtually flat to a person standing on that surface. The very fabric of space becomes relatively “stretched” so that in as few as 100 doublings in size, its curvature is effectively canceled.”

“According to Einstein’s theory of relativity, the energy of a gravitational field is negative. The energy of matter, however, is positive. So the entire universe-creation scenario could unfold without breaking conservation-of-energy laws. The positive energy of all matter in the universe could be precisely counterbalanced by the negative energy of all the gravity in the universe.”

“Human beings have evolved to survive in this universe, not necessarily to be able to understand it. We are approaching a scenario for the creation of the universe that is compatible with the laws of physics

“The decay of the false vacuum—which, according to the inflation theory, created the matter of our universe—does not happen all at once. While some regions decay into universes, other regions keep expanding and creating other universes. Residual false vacuum from the creation of those universes creates still others, indefinitely. Linde and Vilenkin call this “the eternally existing, self-reproducing inflationary universe.”

“Any cosmological theory that does not lead to the eternal reproduction of universes will be considered as unimaginable as a species of bacteria that cannot reproduce.”

F. Formation of the Solar System

Reference/Source :

At first, our solar system was a, nebula, a molecular cloud in space. Mostly H and He gas and may be a few other elements. It was disturbed by a shock wave from an exploding supernova. This resulted in a compression of the gas, and in an increase in its rotational velocity.  The centre of the cloud became hot and dense and the little clumps of matter that formed towards the edges were cold like ice.  As the warm condensing particles, stuck to each other and gathered mass, their gravity pulled other particles close to themselves.

The center of the nebula became the sun. Rocky planets formed closer to the sun and gaseous planets formed further away. The temperature at which rocky materials, of which the terrestrial planets are made of, such as Calcium, Magnesium, Iron, Nickel, and Lead, can begin to form solid material, is much higher, then the outer temperatures at which the gaseous, icy, planets were formed.

“Currently, the theory that best explains all the evidence about the formation of the Earth’s moon is that the Earth was struck by a large object, possibly as large as Mars. This theory holds that sufficient debris was ejected from the Earth to form the Moon. Simulations of this scenario show that energy from such a collision produces a stream of vaporized rock from the impact. It is thought that the Moon formed from this cooled material.”

Because of its heat, the elements of the earth,  separated (differentiated) into the molten iron core at the centre and the lighter silicate rock towards the surface.

“The Earth and Mars are examples of contiguous planets which did and did not differentiate early in their histories. The Earth has a well formed core, with a mantle of silicate rock and an outer crust. Earth has a magnetosphere, which is something which is generated in an active iron core. Mars, the “red planet” seems to have a lot of iron on the surface, a weak magnetosphere, and a small iron core. This suggests that Mars is weakly differentiated. The lack of differentiation may say something about how warm these planets were upon formation. Mars may have warmed too late in its history to fully differentiate, or Mars may not have as much of the radioactivematerial which keeps the Earth warm to start with.”

At this time the sun condensed to a point at which the fusion reactions of Hydrogen into Helium started and the sun started radiating intense energy. The Sun “turned on”.  Even today we have smaller scale solar winds by which the sun throws material into the solar system, but not at the enormous rate at which this used to happen, in the beginning.

G. Formation of the earth’s crust and the oceans

The earth was a part of the molecular cloud or our nebula that solidified after being compressed by a shockwave from an exploding supernova. The T-Tauri solar wind blew away our initial gasesous atmosphere. Our closeness to the center of the nebula meant that we had the high temperatures needed to form the rocky minerals and become a rocky planet. Because of the warmth of the earth’s radioactivity and the heat generated by metorite impacts, our planet slowly differentiated into a hot iron core and a silicate crust. Or perhaps the earth was formed out of pre-differentiated bodies with cores as discussed in the article linked to from the diagram on the left.

“As the earth cooled more, a solid crust formed over the over the liquid material. As the crust cooled, it got wrinkled and burst open in spots. Gradually cracks formed in the crust. Water that formed under the earth’s crust escaped from the cracks in the earth and soon water vapor formed above the earth. This lead to cloud formation. Larger droplets formed in the clouds and as they were pulled to the earth by gravity came the first rainfalls. The rain at first evaporated as soon as it hit the earth. Later, as the earth continued to cool, the rain stayed on to form lakes and oceans. At first the water was all fresh water, but as it had chemicals from the earth’s crust mix in, the water of the oceans became salty.” Source

“At one time the earth was all water on its surface. Later pressure and heat in its center pushed up solid portions of the earth that became land forms. Sometimes the land would sink back down and other portions arise.”  Source

Notes :

Our puranas are replete with incidents where the earth was submerged by water and it/she was rescued by Vishnu. One reference is the Varaha Avatara, where Bhudevi was hidden in the waters by Hiranyaksha and Vishnu turned into a Sukara (boar) and brought the earth up on his tusks.
Another interesting reference is in the Srimad Bhagavatham is of The Purusha from whose navel springs the lotus that carries Brahma. The Purusha is in the state of Yoga Nidra under the ocean and the lotus floats on the waters carrying in it Brahma (lit the great), the Master Creator (Srjam Patih). One way of looking at it is that the lotus is the earth’s crust on the molten core that are the waters and that Vishnu is at the core. (Other interpretations : Padmasana, Padmanabha : Literal (Lotus Stalk), Yogic (Spinal Cord,) , Vishnu as the Black Hole at the Galactic Centre)

H. Correlating the Geological Time Scale with the Caturyugas

Please Refer : Kalpas, Manvantaras, Samvatsaras and How many kinds of Yugas are there?

Traditionally, the present kalpa, the sveta varaha kalpa, began approximately 2 billion years ago, which corresponds to the paleo proterozoic era of the precambrian eon. Half of the Sveta Varaha Kalpa is over.

Calculations as per tradition :

At this time 27 Caturyugas of the 7th manvantara and 6 previous manvantaras of the Sveta Varaha Kalpa are over. The present manvantara is Vaiwasvatha Manvanthara.

1 Kalpa = 4.32 billion years

1 Manvantara = 4.32 billion years/14 = 308.571 million years.

1 Caturyuga is 4.32 billion years/1000 = 4.32 million years.

1 Krutha Yuga = 0.4 (4.32) million years

1 Tretha Yuga = 0.3 (4.32) million years

1 Dwapara Yuga = 0.2 (4.32) million years

Kaliyuga began in 3102 BCE, so 5111 years of Kaliyuga are over.

There fore 5111 + 0.9 (4.32)(1000000) +27(4.32)(1000000) + 6(308.571) (1000000) years have elapsed since the beginning of the present kalpa (sveta varaha), ie 1,971,959,111 years ago. The present manvantara (Vaivaswatha) began 120,533,111 years ago.

Traditionally, the Vaiswastha Manvantara started about 120 million years ago, in the Cretaceous Period of the Mesozoic era of the Phanerozoic Eon.

Our present Caturyuga :

Traditionally our Caturyuga is 4.32 million years long. We are only 5111 years into the Kaliyuga, which is 432000 years long. 426889 years of our Kaliyuga are left. Towards the end of this period is when Kalki Avatar is expected.

3893111 years of this Caturyuga have elapsed, ie about 4 million years of our caturyuga have elapsed. Our entire Caturyuga falls within the Neogene period of the Cenzoic Era.


Previous : Indian History – A New Construct – 1.4 : Formation of the earth’s crust and oceans.

Consolidated : Indian History – A New Construct

G. Indian History – A New Construct – 1.6 : Pangea and the drift of the Indian Plate : JambuDweepa?

When the earth’s crust was formed, the land masses were distributed. They came together in the paleozoic period to form a single continent called Pangea. Animation that shows the formation of Pangea.

This article shows how India broke away from Africa and attached itself to Asia, with diagrams, links to animations and time periods.

At the beginning of the Vaiwasvatha Manvantara (about 300 million years ago), all the present day continents, were still  joined together into a single landmass called Pangea.

237.jpg (125185 bytes)
Can you locate the Indian Sub Continent in Pangea? See how we were attached to Africa, Antartica and Australia.

Starting around 200 million years ago, in the present manvantara, the land masses started breaking up into separate continents. Animation that shows the break up of Pangea.

5globes.gifIndia : Pangea to Present

Animation that shows how India broke away from Pangea and crashed into Asia creating the Himalayas. I like to think that JambuDwipa may have referred to the time when India was actually an island, but you can think of Eurasia or of Pangea too… We need more research and study.

india.gif (27471 bytes)
India crashes into Asia to form Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau

The continental drift has not “ended”  as it were. Below you see an image of the continents will join up again as per current predictions, by the next manvantara. Look at the Indian peninsula.

According to this NASA report this may be the final form of the continents 250 million years into the future (next manvantara)

I. Chiranjeevis – The Long Lived Ones – Markandeya, Vyasa, Maya, Parasurama

Please refer : How long did ancient Indians live? and How many kinds of Yugas are there?

The Traditional View: with the exception of Maya all these sages are alive today and live in the Himalayas.

My Question : Did Vyasa live 8 lakh years ago and did he live for at least 8 lakh years?

My thoughts:

  • The Narmada Skull (Home Erectus/Homo Sapiens is dated at 600,000 years ago). So I can believe that humans roamed India at that time.
  • The Astronomical lengths of the Yugas Refer to Graha Alignments. Instead of taking the alignment of 5 planets, their nodes, anti-nodes, apogees, perigees, together with the sun, moon and the fixed stars, which gives us 4.32 million years for a Caturyuga, we can consider the Barhaspatya Yugas of the alignment of The Sun, Moon, Jupiter and the Dhanishta Nakshatram. Instead of taking the 4:3:2:1 ratio for the individyal yuga lengths we can take 1:1:1:1, which was also a system of the ancient days.

Then we get The following time line.

    1. O Kaliyuga = 3102 BCE based on astronomical events + the geology of the Saraswathi River. (See :Date of the Mahabharata War)
    2. Vyasa’s birth 3162 BCE. Vyasa’s life span : 60 + 60 = 120 years : before moving to Himalayas.
    3. Maya’s composition of the Surya Siddhantam 3202 BCE. Maya’s life-span : 20 (in Krutha) + 60 (in Tretha) + 30 (in Dwapara) = 110 years
    4. Markandeya’s life span : 60 + 60 + 60 = 180 years : before moving to Himalayas. (In this polluted age, there are those who live till 150, so 180 is not difficult for me to accept).

More Points and Details:

    1. See : Generations between Rama and Krishna. and Generations previous to Sri Rama. Then you can see that many sages like DhaumyaGarga etc who were not listed among the Chiranjeevis also lived from middle of Krutha Yuga to the middle of Dwapara Yuga.
    2. This will require us to question the puranic lists of kings that are the favorites of Pargiter and to go with brahminical lineages. We have to go by incidents, places and interactions to confirm membership in the kingly lists.
    3. See : Date of Veda Mantras, and  Equinoxes and Dating Vedas. Some Vedic Mantras have been dated 6500 BCE based on the astronmical events that they recorded. We have to reject max Muellers arbitrary dating of theVedas. We have to take into account the Rshi of the Mantras, his/her lineage and the astronomical events/clues recorded by the mantras all of which were neglected ny Mueller.
    4. Many Vedic Mantras were composed by Rshis who taught or guided Sri Rama either during his childhood or during his Vanavasam.  Some mantras were composed prior to these rishis. Veda Mantras were used in Sri Rama’s wedding by Vasishtha.
    5. The Upanishads were created by the students and descendants of these rshis (eg Nachiketas)
    6. The Bhagavad Gita of Sri Krishna, was composed based on Upanishadic Philosophy and quotes Upanishads. From the Veda Mantras of Vasishtha to the Bhagavad Gita of Sri Krishna the gap is a few hundred years and not a few thousand years.

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