Most people are familiar with the 12 divisions of the zodiac belt popularly called the Sun-Signs.
In the vēdā: we have 27 such divisions called nakSatrANi. (Which gives us 2 and 1/4 nakSatrANi to a zodiac sign called rãśi (heap) in samskRtam.)
To know someone’s nakSatram, you need a hindu calendar or software or an astrologer who will then ask you for the time, place and date of birth.
In present times, we have a concept of nakSatrAdhipati, or the lord of a nakSatram and it is usually one of the navagrahā: . Thus the lord of punravasu nakSatram is guru (jupiter) and of anurādha is śani (saturn) and so on. The concept of vimośöttara daśa system in hindu astrology, uses this heavily.
However in vaidīka times, we had nakSatradEvatA:, the Gods or dEvatA: of the nakSatrANi were the vaidIka dEvA: .
For eg., the dEvatA of punravasu is aditi (the unbroken, the mother of all the dEvA: ), and of anurAdha is mitra (friend, sun).
When a person of a given janma-nakSatram performed a yagnya, they would substitute their name with the name of the presiding deity. Since they and the presiding deity were considered one. A punravasu person performs the yagnyam in the name of aditi. An anurAdha person performs a yagnyam in the name of mitra.
For a complete list from the vEdAnga jyOtiSha (trans. T.S. Kuppanna Sastry) please use the image below.